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Citing Your Sources

A general guide to citations and styles commonly used at USNA.

AIAA Style

  • Used in Aerospace Engineering courses.
  • But check with your syllabus/professor to see what the preferred style is in your class.

AIAA citation basics

  • In-text notation: use a number in square brackets like this [1] to refer to a citation in the "List of References" at the end of your paper.
Book (including chapter title) Author (last name, first and middle name initials), "Chapter Title in Title Case," Book Title in Title Case and Italics, Eth ed., Vol. V, Publisher, City, YYYY, pp. XX-XX.

[1] Goat, B.T., "Scoring Touchdowns," Winning Football Strategies Against Army, 2nd ed., Vol. 1, U.S. Naval Academy Press, Annapolis, 1845, pp. 25-30
Coauthor (last name, first and middle name initials) and Coauthor (last name, first and middle name initials), "Title of Article in Title Case," Journal Title in Title Case and Italics, published online DD Month YYYY, Vol. V, No. I, YYYY; also AIAA Paper XX-XXXX, Month YYYY.
doi: xx.xxxx

[1] Goat, Bill T. and Bancroft, G., "Examining the Superiority of Midshipmen," Midshipman Review, published online 13 Oct. 2016, Vol. 23, No. 4, 2016, pp. 25-30; also AIAA Paper 16-12345, Sept. 2016.
doi: 12345.
Website Author (last name, first and middle name initials), "Page Title in Title Case," Website Title in Title Case and Italics [website description lowercase], [retrieved DD Month YYYY].

[1] Naval Academy Varsity Athletics, "No. 21 Navy tops Army 21-17 for 14th straight win in series," Navy Sports: The Official Website of Naval Academy Varsity Athletics [online], [retrieved 1 Jan. 2016].

AIAA Style resources

Need more help with citations in AIAA Style? Go right to the source at the AIAA website or the more robust guide provided by the University of Cincinnati Libraries.


Explanation of the terms and abbreviations used in the examples on the left.

Red text Replace this text with the appropriate information from your source.
Black text Do not change this text when formatting your citations.
Title Case Capitalize 1st letter of the title & the 1st letter of every principal word
E Edition number
V Volume number
City City where published
YYYY Publication year
X Page or other numbers
DD Publication date
Month Publication month
I Issue number